And there are some, I believe, who practice the fourth, fifth and voucher alton towers water park higher degrees." (Keynes, General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, 1936).

Thus, the strategy can be extended to the next order and the next and so on, at each level attempting to predict the eventual outcome of the process based on the reasoning of other rational participants.The next higher, 'Level 1' players believe that all other players are Level.Newspaper Only, weekend Paper Premium Digital, weekend App Edition.This can be carried one step further to take into account the fact that other entrants would each have their own opinion of what public perceptions are.As an example, imagine a contest where contestants are asked to pick the two best numbers in the list: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 2345, 6435, 9, 10, 11, 12,.If p2/3, for instance, these Level 1 players choose, as their number, 2/3 of 50,.Keynes said that this behaviour was analogous to how participants would behave in a contest to choose the most beautiful faces from a hundred photographs.Personally, I hope that these noise traders stick around for another 100 years because they are the ones who create mispricing in the market.

This would have people pricing shares not based on what they think their fundamental value is, but rather on what they think everyone else thinks their value is, or what everybody else would predict the average assessment of value.

Keynes believed that similar behavior was at work within the stock market.

This article is closed for comments.

Receive the best of The Hindu delivered to your inbox everyday!Let the payoff of winning be alphacdotfrac23text of the average, alpha.We have reached the third degree where we devote our intelligences to anticipating what average opinion expects the average opinion.Then if A chooses x 0, B would best respond by choosing x-epsilon, where epsilonminy:y 0 (B would win of course, but she also wants to maximize her earning by making her choice as close to A's as possible).In fact, it may be even more prevalent today.As an analogy, imagine the contest where the player is instructed to choose the most attractive six faces out of a set of hundred faces.